Why study solar energy engineering?

Reasons to choose Solar. How relevant is the market today?

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Most of the activities that we carry out every day require the use of one form of energy or another. On average, every person living on planet Earth consumes 2500W [1] of primary energy (energy resources that have not suffered any transformation). In one year this adds up to 75 million Btu’s (around 79 gigajoules) per person, which is enough energy to drive a modern diesel car around the Earth by the Equator.

In 2012 world population reached 7 billion; by 2050, 9.6 billion people will live on planet Earth according to UN estimates [2]. As nations grow and develop, both energy consumption per capita and overall world energy consumption will increase dramatically.

WATTS (average power consumption per person)
MILLION BTU'S (energy consumed every year per person)
KMS (distance that can be covered by a diesel car at 5,5 l/100 kms with one person's annual energy)

So, where does all this energy come from? In the global energy mix, 82% comes from fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) and 5% from nuclear [3]. All these sources are non-renewable, which means that sooner or later these reserves will be depleted. For instance, BP estimates that world oil and gas reserves are to last 53 and 55 years respectively at current production rates [4]. The World Coal Association has projected 109 more years of coal production [5]. In turn, current uranium resources are to last 90 years with present technology as per the World Nuclear Association [6]. On top of that, the Earth is experiencing global warming, the effects of which range from increased sea levels, higher occurrence of extreme weather events, loss of biodiversity and social consequences, such as diminished food production.

This makes indispensable to promote energy alternatives, based on renewable resources, as well as to develop more efficient ways to use energy. Solar, in combination with other renewables such as wind, hydropower and biomass, to name a few, are renewable and cleaner substitutes that are potentially capable of supplying today’s energy global demand.

 

The potential of solar energy

In the case of solar energy, it has been calculated that the total solar radiation received on Earth’s surface during the course of one year, adds up to 23000 TW-year, which is more than 1400 times the world’s annual primary energy consumption, or 95 times the energy potential of current oil’s reserves [7]. In the picture below, the potential of several energy sources is represented with circles (in Terawatt, left side) together with the world's energy consumption (middle), and the estimated world's reserves of primary energy in form of fossil fuels and uranium (in Terawatt - year, right side).

Global energy potential. (Adapted by Rfassbind from Perez et al, 2009)

 

The Photovoltaics market

In terms of market activity, the following are some key figures of the solar energy sector. According to a report from IEA-PVPS, by the end of 2014, the cumulative (overall) photovoltaic (PV) installed capacity reached 177 GW [8] worldwide (the equivalent to 177 nuclear reactors). Of those, 40 GW (22%) were installed only in 2014 [9], which illustrates the momentum that this market is experiencing. 

Cumulative World's PV installed capacity. Adapted from (IEA, 2015).

Asia leads the PV global market with around 60 % of the total capacity installed, with China, Japan, Korea, India, Thailand and Taiwan as the most dynamic Asian countries in 2014. In Europe, UK lead the market during the same year, but Germany broke the record of reaching 50% of its electricity needs on the 9th June 2014 [10]. Other countries around the globe have also installed considerable PV capacities during last year: for instance Chile did so with 400 MW, Israel installed 250 MW and Canada did its part with another 500 MW. Several African countries are embarking in a number of PV projects of considerable size, including South Africa, Ghana, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali or Kenya [11][12][13][14][15]. PV off-grid systems have also been a very common solution to rural electrification in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 

Annual PV installed (2014) Cumulative PV installed (2014) Theoretical PV contribution to electricity demand (2014) 
China 10,6 GW Germany 38,2 GW Italy 7,9 %
Japan 9,7 GW  China 28,1 GW Greece 7,6 %
USA 6,2 GW Japan 23,3 GW Germany 7,1 %
UK 2,3 GW Italy 18,5 GW Bulgaria 3,9 %
Germany 1,9 GW USA 18,3 GW Czech Republic 3,8 %
France 0,9 GW France 5,7 GW Belgium 3,6 %
Australia 0,9 GW Spain 5,4 GW Spain 3,5 %
Korea 0,9 GW UK 5,1 GW Romania 2,7 %
South Africa 0,8 GW Australia 4,1 GW Japan 2,5 %
India 0,6 GW Belgium 3,1 GW Australia 2,3 %

Elaborated with data from IEA, 2015.

 

The Solar Thermal market

The market of solar thermal is also very dynamic worldwide. According to the IEA [16], by the end of 2013 the total installed capacity was 375 GWth (535 million m2). The table below illustrates the shares distributed among continents and countries.

 

 
 China
 
 Europe
 
 USA and Canada
 
 Asia (excluding China)
 
 Latin America
 
 Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestina, Tunisia 
 
 Australia and New Zealand
 
 Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, SA, Zimbabwe
 
 Other countries 

Division of the world's solar thermal market cumulative installed capacity (values are in GWth).
Elaborated with data from SHC - IEA, 2013.

Of those 375 GWth, 55 GWth alone (15%) were installed in 2013 (78,6 million m2). It is calculated that, in 2013, the energy savings of all water-based solar thermal systems accounted for 33.7 million tons of oil, contributing to an equivalent of 109 million tons of CO2 mitigation.

 

Concentrating Solar Power

In regards Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), it is worth mentioning that several power stations have gone online in recent years, with a constant increase in size and power output. Spain, a pioneer country in this field, has more than 30 CSP plants already built or under development. In turn, the USA has showed clear interest in this technology and already built several of the biggest CSP stations worldwide, being Ivanpah, in California, the most powerful so far with 392 MW (solar tower). South Africa, United Arab Emirates and India have also built CSP plants, using parabolic trough technology. Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Iran are currently using ISCC plants (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle).

 

Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, located in the California Mojave Desert. ©BrightSource

 

 

 

 

 

[1] U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2014. How much energy does a person use in a year? (FAQ). [June 13, 2015]
[2] United Nations (UN), 2013. World population projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 – UN report. UN News Centre. [June 13, 2015]
[3] International Energy Agency (IEA), 2014. Key World Energy Statistics. p 6. [June 13, 2015]
[4] British Petroleum (BP), 2014. BP Statistical Review of World Energy. pp 6,20. [June 13, 2015]
[5] World Coal Association, n.a. How much coal is left worldwide? Frequently Asked Questions. [June 13, 2015]
[6] World Nuclear Association, 2015. Supply of Uranium. [June 13, 2015]
[7] Bradfort, A. 2014. Effects of Global Warming. Live Science. [June 13, 2015]
[8] Perez et al. 2009. A fundamental look at energy reserves for the planet (Draft). [June 13, 2015]
[9] International Energy Agency (IEA), 2015. 2014 - Snapshot of Global PV Markets. [June 13, 2015]
[10] SolarPower Europe, 2015. Global Market Outlook For Solar Power. [June 13, 2015]
[11] Vidal, J. 2014. UK and Germany break solar power records. The Guardian. [June 13, 2015]
[12] Willis, B. 2015. Kenya in line for 40 MW utility PV power plant. PV-TECH. [June 13, 2015]
[13] Solarplaza, n.a. Top 10 - Commissioned solar PV projects South Africa. Solar/Diesel. [June 13, 2015]
[14] Solarplaza, n.a. Top 20 - Largest Solar PV projects West Africa. Solar/Diesel. [June 13, 2015]
[15] Blue Energy, 2012. Africa's largest solar (PV) power plant. Blue Energy. [June 13, 2015]
[16] Solar Heating & Cooling - IEA, 2013. Solar Heat Worldwide. [June 13, 2015]

Read 2243 times Last modified on Wednesday, 22 July 2015 20:22

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